Manufacturers have been paying fines for not meeting CAFE requirements for years. The cost is simply tacked onto the price of the vehicle. Sometimes the fine costs are tacked onto other vehicles that sell better and aren't even the offenders. It's all a numbers game. If the profits from the gas guzzlers outway the cost of the fines, then the gas guzzlers will get built. I think we'll all benefit from it though. We all want more power and better mileage. These new laws are pushing the technology to give us just that. Who would have thought 15yrs ago that a smallblock V8 gas powered 3/4 ton quad cab long bed pickup truck would get 18~mpg 70mph hwy and tow over 10k lbs for fun. It only gets 8.5~mpg towing the 5th wheel but that only a few trips a year.